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2.1.2 Hook Management

The etoolbox package [51] comes with some useful hook management tools that allow you to append (or prepend) code to a control sequence's definition. To append ⟨code⟩ to the definition of the command ⟨cs⟩:

\apptocs{code}

or to make the effect global:

\gapptocs{code}

Example

\newcommand{\mymacro}{x}%
\mymacro;
\appto\mymacro{AB}%
\mymacro;
\appto\mymacro{YZ}%
\mymacro.

This produces:

x; xAB; xABYZ.

Note that no expansion is performed on ⟨code⟩. For example:

\newcommand{\mymacro}{x}%
\newcommand{\myothermacro}{AB}%
\appto\mymacro{\myothermacro}
\renewcommand{\myothermacro}{YZ}%
\appto\mymacro{\myothermacro}

is equivalent to:

\newcommand{\mymacro}{x\myothermacro\myothermacro}

When you actually use \mymacro it will use whatever the definition of \myothermacro is at the time, which may not be what you intended.

If you want ⟨code⟩ expanded before being appended to ⟨cs⟩ then you need to use:

\eapptocs{code}

or its global equivalent:

\xapptocs{code}

So

\newcommand{\mymacro}{x}%
\newcommand{\myothermacro}{AB}%
\eappto\mymacro{\myothermacro}%
\renewcommand{\myothermacro}{YZ}%
\eappto\mymacro{\myothermacro}

is equivalent to:

\newcommand{\mymacro}{xABYZ}

When you use any of the versions that expand the item, if the item contains a command that shouldn't be expanded, you need to use:

\noexpandcs

where ⟨cs⟩ is the command that shouldn't be expanded. Fragile commands will typically need to have their expansion suppressed. For example:

\newcommand{\mymacro}{x}%
\newcommand{\myothermacro}{AB}%
\eappto\mymacro{\noexpand\footnote{\myothermacro}}

is equivalent to:

\newcommand{\mymacro}{x\footnote{AB}}

Now the fragile \footnote command won't be processed until \mymacro is used later on in the document.

There are similar commands for prepending code to a command:

\pretocs{code}

or its global equivalent:

\gpretocs{code}

As with \appto and \gappto, no expansion is performed on ⟨code⟩. If you want ⟨code⟩ expanded you need to use:

\epretocs{code}

or its global equivalent:

\xpretocs{code}

The expansion commands, such as \eappto and \epreto, fully expandcode⟩. This means that a recursive expansion is performed until everything is expanded except commands that have been prefixed with \noexpand or commands that don't expand, such as primitives or robust commands. For example:

\newcommand{\mymacro}{x}%
\newcommand{\mymacroB}{\mymacroC}%
\newcommand{\mymacroC}{\mymacroD}%
\newcommand{\mymacroD}{Z}%
\eappto\mymacro{\mymacroB}

is equivalent to:

\newcommand{\mymacro}{xZ}

It may be that you only want one-level of expansion. In which case you can use the etoolbox command:

\expandoncecs

For example:

\newcommand{\mymacro}{x}%
\newcommand{\mymacroB}{\mymacroC}%
\newcommand{\mymacroC}{\mymacroD}%
\newcommand{\mymacroD}{Z}%
\eappto\mymacro{\expandonce\mymacroB}

is equivalent to:

\newcommand{\mymacro}{x\mymacroC}

There are also analogous commands that require the name (without the leading backslash) of the control sequence:

\csappto{cs name}{code}

(appending without expansion)

\csgappto{cs name}{code}

(global version)

\cseappto{cs name}{code}

(appending with expansion)

\csxappto{cs name}{code}

(global version)

\cspreto{cs name}{code}

(prepending without expansion)

\csgpreto{cs name}{code}

(global version)

\csepreto{cs name}{code}

(prepending with expansion)

\csxpreto{cs name}{code}

(global version).


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